14 Notation

A cross-sectional area perpendicular to flow (L2)
α compressibility of the aquifer skeleton (T2LM−1)
β compressibility of water (T2LM−1)
C concentration in the stream water (ML−3)
Cg concentration in 100% groundwater (ML−3)
Cr concentration in 100% surface runoff water (ML−3)
D in Equation 2, mean pore size diameter for porous media or the pipe diameter (L)
D in Equation 4, hydraulic diameter of the pipe (L) (for circular pipe it is the pipe diameter, but for a non-circular pipe D = 2 times the square root of (A/π); where A is the cross-sectional area)
Δh measured head difference (L)
Δl length over which the head difference is measured (L)
Δp pressure difference between two ends of the pipe (ML−1T−2)
fD Darcy friction factor (dimensionless)
g local acceleration due to gravity or gravity constant (LT−2)
K hydraulic conductivity of the porous medium (LT−1)
L pipe length (L)
μ absolute or dynamic viscosity of water (ML−1T−1]
n porosity (dimensionless)
ν kinematic viscosity of water (L2T−1)
Q volumetric discharge (L3T−1)
q specific discharge (LT−1)
Qg groundwater portion of the total discharge of the stream (L3T−1)
Qr surface runoff portion of the total discharge of the stream (L3T−1)
r pipe radius (L)
Re Reynolds number (dimensionless)
ρ density of water (ML−3)
Ss specific storage (L−1)
V Q/A and is the mean flow velocity (LT−1) across a cross sectional area (also called Darcy velocity), which is equal to the volumetric flow, Q (L3T−1), divided by the cross-sectional area perpendicular to the direction of flow, A (L2)


Introduction to Karst Aquifers Copyright © 2022 by Eve L. Kuniansky, Charles J. Taylor, and Frederick Paillet. All Rights Reserved.