Problem 3 Solution


a) Draw equipotential lines in the sand at 1 ft intervals.

b) To what level will water rise in the hypothetical piezometer?


a. The constant head values at the top and bottom of the sand column are equal to the water level elevation of the column of water that bounds each end of the porous medium. Flow must be vertical in the sand column given the geometry of the cylinder, and the potentiometric lines must be horizontal (potentiometric contours are perpendicular to the direction of flow and perpendicular to no-flow boundaries). The head gradient is specified by the spacing between contour lines; in this case, they must be equally spaced because the medium is homogeneous.

b. The water level in a piezometer is equal to the hydraulic head at the point of measurement, which in this case is the open end of the piezometer in the sand. Therefore, the water level in the hypothetical piezometer is 14 ft.

Figure for solution to Example Problem 3

Return to Example Problem 3


Conceptual and Visual Understanding of Hydraulic Head and Groundwater Flow Copyright © 2020 by Andrew J.B. Cohen and John A. Cherry. All Rights Reserved.